Sea Turtle swimming in the open sea.
Turtle swimming underwater - Photo credit - Belle Co -

Further Readings

Some Introductory Books on the Oceans

Knowlton, N. (2010) Citizens of the Sea: Wondrous Creatures from the Census of Marine Life. National Geographic Society.

Mladenov, P.V. (2020) Marine Biology: A Very Short Introduction. 2nd Edition. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

Palumbi, S. R. and Palumbi, A. R. (2014) The Extreme Life of the Sea. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.

Some Textbooks on Marine Biology and the Ocean Sciences

Levinton, J. S. (2018) Marine Biology: Function, Biodiversity, Ecology. 5th Edition. New York: Oxford University Press.

Thomas, D. N. and Bowers, D. G. (2012, reprinted 2018) Introducing Oceanography. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press Ltd.


Yesterday’s Oceans

Chami, R., Cosimano, T., Fullenkamp, C. and Oztosun, S. (2019) Nature’s solution to climate change. A strategy to protect whales can limit greenhouse gases and global warming. Finance & Development, December 2019.

Jackson, J.B., Kirby, M.X, Berger, W.H. et al. (2001) Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293 (5530), 629-637.

Lotze, H. K., Coll, M., and Dunne, J. A. (2011) Historical changes in marine resources, food-web structure and ecosystem functioning in the Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean. Ecosystems 14, 198–222.

McClenachan, L. and Cooper, A. B. (2008) Extinction rate, historical population structure and ecological role of the Caribbean monk seal. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 275, 1351-1358. Available from: doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1757.

McClenachan, L., Jackson, J. B. C., and Newman, M. J. H. (2006) Conservation implications of historic sea turtle nesting beach loss. Front. Ecol. Environ. 4 (6), 290–6.

McClenahan, L. (2009) Documenting loss of large trophy fish from the Florida Keys with historical photographs. Conservation Biology 23(3), 636-645. Available from: <>. (Accessed 4 May 2020).

Mladenov, P.V. (2020) Marine Biology: A Very Short Introduction. 2nd Edition. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press

NOAA. Oyster reefs. Ecological Importance (Online) Available from: (Accessed 3 May 2020)

Pershing, A. J., Christensen, L. B., Record, N. R., Sherwood, G. D., and Stetson, P. B. (2010) The impact of whaling on the ocean carbon cycle: Why bigger was better. PLoS ONE 5(8): e12444. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012444.

Roberts, C. (2007) The Unnatural History of the Sea. Washington: Island Press.
Roberts, C. (2012) Ocean of Life: How Our Seas Are Changing. London: Penguin Group.

Rocha, R. C. Jr., Clapham, P. J. and Ivashchenko, Y. V. (2015) Emptying the oceans: A summary of industrial whaling catches in the 20th century. Marine Fisheries Review 76(4), 37-48. Available from DOI: 10.7755/MFR.76.4.3.

Romañach, S. S., DeAngelis, D. L., Koh, H. L., Li, Y., et al. (2018) Conservation and restoration of mangroves: global status, perspectives, and prognosis. Ocean and Coastal Management 154, 72–82. Available from: <>.

Rose, G.A. (2004) Reconciling overfishing and climate change with stock dynamics of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) over 500 years. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54, 1198-1210.

Rossi, S. (2019) Oceans in Decline. Basel: Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
Stone, M. (2019) National Geographic. How much is a whale worth? (Online) Available from: <> (Accessed 4 May 2020).

Thomas, J. E., Carvalho, G.R., Haile, J. et al. (2019) Demographic reconstruction from ancient DNA supports rapid extinction of the great auk. eLife 2019; 8:e47509. DOI:

Today’s Oceans

Breitburg, D., Grégoire, M., and Isensee, K. (eds). (2018) Global Ocean Oxygen Network 2018. The Ocean is Losing its Breath: Declining Oxygen in the World’s Ocean and Coastal Waters. IOC-UNESCO, IOC Technical Series, No. 137 40pp. Available from: <>.

De Poorter, M., Darby, C., and MacKay, J. (2009) Marine Menace: Alien Invasive Species in the Marine Environment. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 1–31.

Dulvy, N. K. et al. (2014) Extinction risk and conservation of the world’s sharks and rays. eLife 2014;3:e00590, 1-34. Available from: DOI: 10.7554/eLife.00590.

Dulvy, N. K., Pinnegar, J. K. and Reynolds, J. D. (2009) Holocene extinctions in the sea. In: Turvey, S.T. (Ed.) Holocene Extinction. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 129-150.

FAO (2018) The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2018—Meeting the Sustainable Development Goals. Rome. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2019) Ballast waters: pollution and invasive species. (Online) Available from: <> (Accessed 13 January 2019).

Jouffray, J-B, Blasiak, R, Norström, A. V., Österblom, H. and Nyström, M. (2020) The blue acceleration: the trajectory of human expansion into the Ocean. One Earth 2, January 24, 2020, 43-54. Available from:<>.

Mladenov, P.V. (2020) Marine Biology: A Very Short Introduction. 2nd Edition. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

Rousseau, Y., Watson, R. G., Blanchard, J. L. and Fulton, E. A. (2019) Evolution of global marine fishing fleets and the response of fished resources. PNAS (Online) 116 (25), 12238-12243. Available from: <>

Screen, J. A. and Deser, C. (2019) Pacific Ocean variability influences the time of emergence of a seasonally ice‐free Arctic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 2019; DOI: 10.1029/2018GL081393

Wittmann, A. C. and Pörtner, H.-O. (2013) Sensitivities of extant animal taxa to ocean acidification. Nature Climate Change 3, 995–1001.

Tomorrow’s Oceans

Duarte, C. M., Agusti, S., Barbier, E. et al. Rebuilding marine life. Nature 580, 39–51 (2020). Available from: <>

Lubchenco, J. and Gaines, S. D. (2019) A new narrative for the ocean. Science 364 (6444), 911. Available from: <>.

Mladenov, P.V. (2020) Marine Biology: A Very Short Introduction. 2nd Edition. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. (See Chapter 9 – The future of our oceans).